When you think of roses, you most likely picture a red or pink bloom. But did you know there are so many more different types of roses?
Many different hybrid versions of these have also been developed over time.
If you’re interested in incorporating these beautiful plants into your home or garden, read on for an introduction to the different types of rose and their variations.
Roses are classified into three categories, namely wild roses, old roses, and modern roses.
The following are the types of roses that can decorate the garden in your home:
- Wild and Classic Types of Roses
- R. primula
- R. pimpenelifolia syn. R. spinossisima var. pimpenelifolia
- R. rubrus ‘hybrid’
- R. serratipetala
- Rosa acicularis
- Rosa beggeriana
- Rosa bracteata
- Rosa banksiae (Banksia rose)
- Rosa arkansana (Prairie rose)
- Rosa amblyotis
- Rosa blanda
- R. immediately syn. R. rubifolia
- R. rugosa ‘Alba’
- Rosa chinensis (China roses)
- Rosa cinnamomea plena (syn. R. majalis)
- Rosa davidii
- Rosa corymbifera
- Rosa davurica
- Rosa dumalis
- Rosa eglanteria (R. rubiginosa)
- Rosa ecae
- Rosa fedtschenkoala
- Rosa elegantula (Rosa farreri)
- Rosa foetida
- Rosa foliolosa
- Rosa gigantia
- Rosa Galica
- Rosa glauca (R. rubifolia)
- R. centifolia Syn. R. gallica var. centifolia
- Rosa gymnocarpa (wood rose)
- Rosa holodontha (syn. R. moyesii rosea)
- Rosa hemisphaerica (Sulfur rose)
- Rosa inodora (R. elliptical)
- Rosa hugonis
- Rosa laevigata (Cherokee rose)
- Rosa macrophyla
- Rosa laxa
- Rosa marginata (syn. R. jundzii)
- Rosa marretti
- Rosa moschata
- R. polyantha
- R. mulliganii
- Rosa moyesii ‘hybrid’
- R. multiflora
- R. nutkana
- R. nitida
- R. sempervirens
- R. palustris
- R. pendulina
- R. roxburhii ‘Alba’
- R. pomifera syn. R. villasa
- R. pisocarpa
- R. sericea pteracantha
- R. setipod
- R. sherardii
- R. stelatta
- R. souleiana
- R. sweginzowii
- R. wichurana syn. R. luciae var. wichurana
- R. webbiana
- R. virginiana
- R. mundii
- R. willmott
- R. woodsii
- R. spinossisima syn. R. pimpinellifolia
- Modern Types of Roses
Wild and Classic Types of Roses
This shrub rose from China is more familiar with the Afhan Rose or Incense Rose.
Easily recognizable by the fragrant aroma of the leaves.
Its height can reach about 3 m with a canopy of 1.5 m wide.
R. pimpenelifolia syn. R. spinossisima var. pimpenelifolia
Known as ‘Burnett Roses’ and originated in Europe. Including small shrubs that grow creeping with branches growing down or hanging down.
Its distinctive feature lies in its long spines from the base to the tip of the stem.
R. rubrus ‘hybrid’
This Chinese vine is known by the common name Blackberry Rose.
Easily recognizable by looking at the stems are filled with green spines with purple tips.
The flowers are small, single-crowned, and the fruit is very small, dark red.
They are generally known as China’s Roses because they come from China, especially northern China.
These roses include shrubs that have upright branches 1.5 – 2.5 m.
The flowers are similar to Dianthus flowers, with several layers of crowns.
This species has white and red flowers.
Native to northern Europe, Asia, and America.
It is a weak shrub (Jax shrub) that reaches 1.2 m in height and forms a canopy of 1.8 m wide.
The leaves are grayish green, single-flowered pink, and slightly fragrant. The fruit (rose hip) is bright red and shaped like a pear.
This species is native to central Asia. It grows as a shrub that sheds leaves once a year.
The plant height reaches 2.4 m and forms a 2.4 m wide canopy so that it looks like a half circle.
The flowers are white, small, and clustered, each consisting of 8 or more buds.
Europeans often refer to this species as Macartney Rose. This species is native to China but is also commonly found in South America.
R. bracteata is classified as a shrub rose with slightly spreading growth and tight thorns. The leaves are very dark green or blackish green.
The flowers are white, single-crowned, with a distinctive collection of stamens forming a circle in the middle of the crown.
Rosa banksiae (Banksia rose)
Native to Europe and mainland China. They are classified as climbing roses.
Rosa banksiae has compound leaves consisting of 3-5 leaves.
This species is divided into three subspecies, namely R. banksiae subspecies banksiae, which has white flowers and double crowns; R. baksiae subspecies lutea, which has yellow flowers and consists of 2-3 layers of crowns; and R. banksiae subspecies normalis with double flower crowns, white greenish.
The characteristic feature of R. banksiae subspecies normalis lies in the thornless stems.
Rosa arkansana (Prairie rose)
Roses originating from Central America is a maximum height of 50 cm and grow creeping with a canopy as wide as 60 -120 cm.
The branches of this creeping shrub (suckering shrub) are erect, and the leaves are bright green. R. arkansana has reddish-pink flowers and a very distinctive aroma that is easy to recognize.
Native to southwest Asia. Including the type of shrub roses.
Grows upright up to 1.2 m tall with branches pointing upwards.
Roses belonging to the R. ambyotis species have a single flower crown, purplish pink color, and a slightly fragrant aroma. The fruit is round, small, bright red.
R. blanda from Europe and North America is often nicknamed the Hudson Bay Rose, Meadow Rose, or Smoth Rose.
It grows upright to 0.9 m tall and forms a canopy 0.9 – 12 m wide.
The stem is brown, and the flowers are double-crowned, light pink, with a slightly fragrant aroma. The fruit is shaped like a pear and is red.
R. immediately syn. R. rubifolia
Rose enthusiasts call this climbing rose from southeast America the Prairie Rose.
Its height reaches 4.5 m, and its canopy spreads over 3 m.
Dark pink flowers with round, wrinkled red or green-brown fruit.
R. rugosa ‘Alba’
Two subspecies of R. rugosa are white-flowered R. rugosa alba and red-flowered R. rugosa rubra.
This rose native to Japan, and southwest Asia is often called the Beach Rose, Japanese Rose, and Ramanas Rose. The shape of the fruit is like a tomato, red.
Rosa cannina (Common briar, Dog rose)
Roses that grow as creeping shrubs come from England but are also found in mainland Europe.
The key determinant for this species is compound leaves consisting of 5-7 leaves. The flowers are very light pink to white, the aroma is fragrant, and the fruit is orange.
Also, read about different types of begonia plants.
Rosa chinensis (China roses)
Rose enthusiasts call it the Chinese rose. This rose is native to mainland China. Some grow as short shrubs; some are semi-vines.
Its height is about 2.4 m, and species that grow half-vines can form a canopy of 6 m wide. The flowers are pink, red, and white.
Some have double crowns, and some have single crowns. This Chinese rose is widely used as a parent for modern rose breeding.
Hundreds of attractive modern roses emerged from unattractive parental crosses of R. cinensis.
Rosa cinnamomea plena (syn. R. majalis)
Originally from southwestern Europe. This species is known as Cinnamon Rose or May Rose and is classified as a shrub that sheds leaves once a year.
It is about 1.5 m high and forms a 1.8 m wide canopy. The stems are purplish, while the leaves are silvery green.
Roses of this species can flower single or double purplish pink.
Roses from central China are classified as shrubs with an irregular branching arrangement and intertwine between one branch and another.
It reaches 3 m in height and forms a 2.4 m wide canopy.
The leaves grow twisted. Single-crowned flowers, clustered in groups, and pink.
Botanists discovered R. corymbifera as a native species from Europe, southwest Asia, and North Africa.
It is a shrub rose to 3 m high and forms a 3 m wide canopy.
Flowers are arranged in single-crowned clusters, white, cream, or light pink.
This species is native to southwest and northern Asia. Small leaves are pointing upwards.
The flowers are single or double-crowned, consisting of 3 crowns. The fruit is small, oval, and red.
The height of this rose from Europe, Turkey, and western Asia is about 0.9 — 2 m.
The leaves are not visible in spring because they are covered by a collection of pink flowers with a single crown.
Rosa eglanteria (R. rubiginosa)
Native to southwest Asia and Europe. Europeans often call this 3 m tall shrub Sweet Briar or Eglantine.
The hallmark of this rose is the leaves’ smell of apples. The flowers are small (less than 1 cm), single-crowned, arranged in groups, and fragrant.
This type of rose comes from Afghanistan and Pakistan. Grows as a creeping shrub with many branches.
The plant height is about 1.2 m and forms a 1.2 m wide canopy.
The leaves are small like fern leaves and have a fragrant aroma. The flowers are shaped like a single crowned bowl.
Botanists found this rose in the mountains of central Asia.
It is an upright shrub with a height of 0.9 – 2.4 m and a crown width of 2.4 m.
The leaves are grayish green, the flowers are white with a single crown, the long stamens form a group in the middle of the flower crown, and the aroma is very fragrant.
Rosa elegantula (Rosa farreri)
This rose from southwest China is known as the Threepenny Bit Rose.
It grows as an erect shrub 0.9 – 2 m tall and forms a 2.4 m wide canopy.
The leaves are silvery with leaves like ferns. The flowers are single white or pink. Rarely forms fruit.
This rose from the mountains of Asia is known as Austrian Yellow and Austrian Briar. It is an erect shrub with black spines.
Plants reach 3 m high and form a 1.8 m wide canopy.
The leaves are bright green, and the flowers are light yellow.
This rose is native to southeastern America. It is a kind of melodious rose that grows creeping and does not have thorns.
This type of shrub is only about 45 – 90 cm high.
The leaves are broad dark green, and the flowers are single-crowned, bright pink, and fragrant.
This species is native to southwestern India, Myanmar, and western China.
They are classified as climbing roses with a characteristic form of dense thorns along the stem.
There are three colors of gigantia roses, namely creamy white and pink.
This ancient type of rose is more familiar with the French Rose or Red Rose. The distribution of Galica covers eastern and central Europe.
It is a creeping shrub with a height of about 1.2 m.
The leaves are thick, glossy, and dark green. The flowers are always single flowers, light pink or dark pink.
The stamens are very conspicuous, light yellow in color.
Rosa glauca (R. rubifolia)
The hallmark of this European species lies in its young leaves, which are always red.
It is about 1.8 m tall, the leaves are bluish-green, and the flowers are star-shaped white with a dark pink center.
R. centifolia Syn. R. gallica var. centifolia
This shrub-type rose from Central Asia, which is about 15 – 2 m high, has a characteristic grayish-green leaf and round flowers with double crowns that overlap each other.
There are many variations of flower colors, namely pink, purplish red, and white. The flowers are very fragrant.
Rosa gymnocarpa (wood rose)
This shrub from North America is about 0.9 – 3 m high and forms a 2 m wide canopy.
The spines are sparse, the flowers are light pink, and the fruit is glossy red.
Rosa holodontha (syn. R. moyesii rosea)
This rose is a species native to western China.
They are classified as upright shrubs with a height of about 3 m and a crown width of 2 m.
This species is easily recognized by its spines that reach up to 3 cm.
The leaves are 7-13 strands, dark green on top and bluish-green on the bottom.
Flowers are at the end of the stalk and consist of a single pink flower. The fruit is shaped like 5 cm long.
Rosa hemisphaerica (Sulfur rose)
This native wild rose from west Asia is a shrub with many branches.
It is about 2 m high and forms a 2 m wide canopy.
The stems are erect and thorny, the leaves are grayish green, and the flowers are double crowned yellow.
Rosa inodora (R. elliptical)
This species is classified as a stocky shrub. Native to southern Europe and usually found as a wild plant.
It is about 2.4 m high and forms a 3 m wide canopy.
The leaves are fragrant, and the single flowers are light pink or white.
This native Chinese rose bush used to have the botanical name R. xanthina hugonis.
It reaches 2 m in height and forms a canopy about 1.8 m wide.
The flowers are yellow, measuring 5 cm.
Rosa laevigata (Cherokee rose)
The habitat of this species includes tropical and subtropical western Asia.
It is classified as a shrub rose that grows naturally throughout the year—a plant height of 2 m with a canopy width of 1.8 m.
This species is an easily recognizable feature of its sharp, serrated, glossy, and clay leaf edges. The flowers have a single crown of light pink.
This species is native to the Himalayas. The stems are thornless and dark red, the flowers are bright pink, and the fruit is serrated red.
This species, native to Siberia and southwest China, is about 2 – 2.4 m in height. Its knuckle stems and curved spines easily recognize it.
The leaves are compound leaves consisting of 9 leaflets, 5 cm long, serrated, and hairy underside.
Flowers in groups composed of 1 – 6 pink flowers of 5 cm. Hip measuring 1 – 2 cm red.
Rosa marginata (syn. R. jundzii)
This rose has the botanical name R. jundzillii, and comes from western Europe.
It is about 0.9 – 2 m high and forms a 2.4 m wide canopy.
The leaves are very distinctive, dark green with an inward curved tip.
The flowers are very fragrant, and consist of a single layer of crown pink.
This shrub-type rose comes from central Europe. Including upright shrubs with purplish stems.
The height of the plant is about 1.8 m, and the width of the canopy is about 1.2 m.
Leaves are light green, with small flowers in clusters.
This half-vine-growing rose comes from southern and central Europe.
The species has few spines, and the leaves are grayish-green. The flowers are single, arranged in cream-colored clusters, and smell good.
This short, stocky shrub rose from southeastern Europe and is 60 -120 cm tall. The flowers are double-crowned light pink.
This shrub rose from China grows strong. The shoots and leaves are gray; The flowers are white, form small clusters, and are fragrant.
Rosa moyesii ‘hybrid’
This rose comes from western China.
The stems are erect, and covered with many thorns and dark green leaves.
Including the high type because it can reach 3 m and form a maximum canopy of 3 m.
It is a shrub that grows wide with a height of about 3-4 m.
Because it comes from Japan and southwest Asia, rose hobbyists often call it the Japanese Rose.
Including rose bushes that grow as trees with a height of 1.8 -3 m.
This species is difficult to distinguish from R. hispida.
The flowers are small, single-crowned, and fragrant. In autumn, the leaves turn red.
These shrub roses grow creeping and are widely planted as ground cover. This wild rose is native to North America. The leaves resemble those of ferns, small orange flowers.
This rose from southeastern Europe grows as a creeping shrub that never loses its leaves.
Common name Evergreen Rose. It is about 0.3 m tall and grows as far as 5 m. The single-flower crown is white.
This shrub rose comes from the humid regions of Southwestern America. Because they like wet areas, these roses are better known as Swamp Roses.
It is 1.2-2 m tall and grows to creep up to 1.8 m.
The leaves are dark green, while the flowers are dark pink with a single crown.
This shrub rose comes from central and southeastern Europe.
The stems are purplish and are often called thornless roses.
Another easily recognizable feature is the long, yellow stamens in the middle of the pink or purplish-pink crown.
R. roxburhii ‘Alba’
This deciduous shrub from China is known as Burr Rose and Chesnut Rose.
Branching is rare; the surface of the trunk, when old, is like peeling wood, and the leaves consist of 15 small leaflets.
R. pomifera syn. R. villasa
This shrub rose comes from southeastern Europe and Turkey. Its common name is Apple Rose.
The branches are stiff, with a height of 1.8 m.
The single flower is dark pink with a distinctive aroma, the thorns are tight: and the fruit is wrinkled.
This species is native to southwest America. The common name of this deciduous shrub rose is Cluster Rose. Its distinctive feature lies in its tiny red flowers.
R. sericea pteracantha
This rose from China and the Himalayas is a shrub with wide thorns, leaves like ferns, and very distinctive flowers, which only consist of 4 crowns.
Its popular name is Maltesse Cross Rose.
This shrub rose comes from southwest China. The growth of the branches is very tight with flat spines, and the leaves are fragrant when squeezed.
The flowers are single-crowned and very large.
This shrub-type rose with a height of about 2 m is native to southeastern Europe.
This species is easily recognized by its hairy and gray leaves, while the flowers are dark pink and fragrant.
This deciduous shrub rose from southwest America and is known as the Desert Rose.
The stems are filled with small thorns; the leaves are wide, and the flowers are pink.
There is also a purplish pink cultivar, namely R. stelatta Mirifica.
This shrub comes from the southwestern part of China.
It is about 3 m tall with a crown 1.8 m wide, the leaves are oval, grayish green, and the corolla is single or double white.
This rose bush from China is in the form of a large tree that reaches 3 m high and has a title of 5 m wide.
Its distinctive features are large thorns, oval leaves with dense serrations, and dark pink clusters of flowers.
R. wichurana syn. R. luciae var. wichurana
This rose, commonly known as the Memorial Rose, is a shrub with dense branches and grows vines. Comes from several places in Asia, especially in the southwest.
The leaves are oval, and the single-crowned flowers are white and appear in groups.
This species is often used as a parent in the hybridization process.
This shrub rose comes from the Himalayas. The crown is spreading, the leaves are gray, and the flowers are light pink.
The appearance of this rose is not very attractive, but the fragrance of the flowers is fragrant.
This short creeping shrub rose from America. And is often called the Virginia Rose. The flowers are single-crowned, dark pink.
In the country of the four seasons, the leaves turn fiery red in autumn.
Originally from Turkey and some areas in Europe.
Including shrubs in the form of small trees with upright branches with a height of 1.5 – 2.5 m.
Its characteristic lies in the reddish shoots and 5 -7 leaflets on each leaf. Double-crowned flowers vary in color depending on the parent used to produce the hybrid.
This Chinese rose has the popular name Miss Willmott’s Rose.
Growing to a height of 1.8 m, this plant has a single flower crown, purplish-pink with bright yellow stamens.
This rose is native to America, and among rose enthusiasts, it is known as the Western Wild Rose.
The flowers are small, pink, and clustered. In Canada, there is another cultivar named R.woodsii ‘Ultramoranta’.
R. spinossisima syn. R. pimpinellifolia
This creeping shrub rose comes from several countries in Europe and Asia with the common name Burnet Rose or Scotch briar.
Small leaves and crowned with white flowers with bright yellow stamens.
Modern Types of Roses
Hybrid tea roses result from a cross between a tea rose and a perpetual hybrid. The first hybrid was produced in 1867 by Florence Nightingale. This red-flowered hybrid was named La French.
Furthermore, in 1900 created, a new hybrid yellow, named Soleil D’or.
Today hundreds of hybrid teas have been created because this type is the most popular compared to other roses.
Hybrid tea roses, dubbed the queen of roses, have a variety of scents and flower shapes. The texture of the flowers is soft, like satin.
Morphologically, hybrid tea roses have special characteristics, namely double flower crowns and smooth flower texture; each stem has one flower branch and has fewer branches and flowers.
Hybrid tea roses produced by hybrids mostly have semi-blooming flowers, pointed flowers, and thick crowns and bloom longer than floribunda roses. The stem is long and generally cultivated to produce cut flowers.
The floribunda rose is the result of a cross between a polyantha rose (pom-pom rose) and a hybrid tea.
The first plant breeder to hybridize floribunda roses was Swend Paulsen from Sweden. The first hybrid he produced in 1924 was named Else Paulsen.
Physically the appearance of floribunda roses is less attractive than hybrid tea, but floribunda roses have more flowers per branch than hybrid tea roses.
Each stem produces more than one productive branch, and each productive branch produces several flowers that bloom almost simultaneously.
Productive branches are branches that grow on the main branch and produce flowers.
The variety of flower colors in floribunda roses is more than hybrid tea so floribunda roses are widely cultivated to decorate the garden.
Unlike hybrid tea roses, which always have double flowers, floribunda roses have single flowers, and some have double flowers.
Roses are beautiful and elegant flowers that can add a pop of color and fragrance to any home or garden. There are many varieties of roses, each suited to different climates and settings.
Whether planting a shrub rose in your garden or growing a miniature rose indoors, these flowers charm any space.